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ILLUSTRATIONS

Article 1
1. The Russian Federation - Russia is a democratic federal law-bound State with a republican form of government.
2. The names "Russian Federation" and "Russia" shall be equal.



          

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Article 3
1. The bearer of sovereignty and the only source of power in the Russian Federation shall be its multinational people.
2. The people shall exercise their power directly, and also through the bodies of state power and local self-government.
3. The supreme direct expression of the power of the people shall be referenda and free elections.
4. No one may usurp power in the Russian Federation. Seizure of power or usurping state authority shall be prosecuted by federal law.



          

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Article 4
1. The sovereignty of the Russian Federation shall cover the whole of its territory.
2. The Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws shall have supremacy in the whole territory of the Russian Federation.
3. The Russian Federation shall ensure the integrity and inviolability of its territory.



          

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Article 6
1. The citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be acquired and terminated according to federal law; it shall be one and equal, irrespective of the grounds of acquisition.
2. Every citizen of the Russian Federation shall enjoy in its territory all the rights and freedoms and bear equal duties provided for by the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
3. A citizen of the Russian Federation may be deprived of his or her citizenship or of the right to change it.



          

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Article 14
1. The Russian Federation is a secular state. No religion may be established as a state or obligatory one.
2. Religious associations shall be separated from the State and shall be equal before the law.



          

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Article 15
1. The Constitution of the Russian Federation shall have the supreme juridical force, direct action and shall be used on the whole territory of the Russian Federation. Laws and other legal acts adopted in the Russian Federation shall not contradict the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
2. The bodies of state authority, the bodies of local self-government, officials, private citizens and their associations shall be obliged to observe the Constitution of the Russian Federation and laws.
3. Laws shall be officially published. Unpublished laws shall not be used. Any normative legal acts concerning human rights, freedoms and duties of man and citizen may not be used, if they are not officially published for general knowledge.
4. The universally-recognized norms of international law and international treaties and agreements of the Russian Federation shall be a component part of its legal system. If an international treaty or agreement of the Russian Federation fixes other rules than those envisaged by law, the rules of the international agreement shall be applied.



          

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Article 20
1. Everyone shall have the right to life.
2. Capital punishment until its complete elimination may be envisaged by a federal law as an exclusive penalty for especially grave crimes against life, and the accused shall be granted the right to have his case examined by jurytrial.



          

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Article 22
1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom and personal immunity.
2. Arrest, detention and remanding in custody shall be allowed only by court decision. Without the court's decision a person may be detained for a term more than 48 hours.



          

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Article 26
1. Everyone shall have the right to determine and indicate his nationality. No one may be forced to determine and indicate his or her nationality.
2. Everyone shall have the right to use his or her native language, to a free choice of the language of communication, upbringing, education and creative work.



          

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Article 29
1. Everyone shall be guaranteed the freedom of ideas and speech.
2. The propaganda or agitation instigating social, racial, national or religious hatred and strife shall not be allowed. The propaganda of social, racial, national, religious or linguistic supremacy shall be banned.
3. No one may be forced to express his views and convictions or to reject them.
4. Everyone shall have the right to freely look for, receive, transmit, produce and distribute information by any legal way. The list of data comprising state secrets shall be determined by a federal law.
5. The freedom of mass communication shall be guaranteed. Censorship shall be banned.



          

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Article 32
1. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to participate in managing state affairs both directly and through their representatives.
2. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to elect and be elected to state bodies of power and local self-government bodies, and also to participate in referenda.
3. Deprived of the right to elect and be elected shall be citizens recognized by court as legally unfit, as well as citizens kept in places of confinement by a court sentence.
4. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall enjoy equal access to the state service.
5. Citizens of the expenditures shall have the right to participate in administering justice.



          

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Article 33
Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to address personally, as well as to submit individual and collective appeals to state organs and local self-government bodies.



          

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Article 36
1. Citizens and their associations shall have the right to possess land as private property.
2. Possession, utilization and disposal of land and other natural resources shall be exercised by the owners freely, if it is not detrimental to the environment and does not violate the rights and lawful interests of other people.
3. The terms and rules for the use of land shall be fixed by a federal law.



          

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Article 37
1. Labour is free. Everyone shall have the right to freely use his labour capabilities, to choose the type of activity and profession.
2. Forced labour shall be banned.
3. Everyone shall have the right to labour conditions meeting the safety and hygienic requirements, for labour remuneration without any discrimination whatsoever and not lower than minimum wages and salaries established by the federal law, as well as the right to protection against unemployment.
4. Recognition shall be given to the right to individual and collective labour disputes with the use of methods of their adjustment fixed by the federal law, including the right to strike.
5. Everyone shall have the right to rest and license. Those working by labour contracts shall be guaranteed the fixed duration of the working time, days off and holidays, and the annual paid leave established by the federal law.



          

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Article 39
1. Everyone shall be guaranteed social security at the expense of the State in old age, in case of an illness, disableness, loss of the bread-winner, for upbringing of children and in other cases established by law.
2. State pensions and social allowances shall be established by law.
3. Promotion shall be given to voluntary social insurance and the creation of additional forms of social security and charity.



          

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Article 41
1. Everyone shall have the right to health protection and medical aid. Medical aid in state and municipal health establishments shall be rendered to individuals gratis, at the expense of the corresponding budget, insurance contributions, and other proceeds.
2. In the Russian Federation federal programmes of protecting and strengthening the health of the population shall be financed by the State; measures shall be adopted to develop state, municipal and private health services; activities shall be promoted which facilitate the strengthening of health, the development of physical culture and sport, ecological and sanitary-epidemiological well-being.
3. The concealment by officials of the facts and circumstances posing a threat to the life and health of people shall entail responsibility according to the federal law.



          

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Article 44
1. Everyone shall be guaranteed the freedom of literary, artistic, scientific, technical and other types of creative activity, and teaching. Intellectual property shall be protected by law.
2. Everyone shall have the right to participate in cultural life and use cultural establishments and to an access to cultural values.
3. Everyone shall be obliged to care for the preservation of cultural and historical heritage and protect monuments of history and culture.



          

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Article 48
1. Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to qualified legal assistance. In cases envisaged by law the legal assistance shall be free.
2. Any person detained, taken into custody, accused of committing a crime shall have the right to receive assistance of a lawyer (counsel for the defence) from the moment of detention, confinement in custody or facing charges accordingly.



          

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Article 49
1. Everyone accused of committing a crime shall be considered innocent until his guilt is proved according to the rules fixed by the federal law and confirmed by the sentence of a court which has come into legal force.
2. The accused shall not be obliged to prove his innocence.
3. Unremovable doubts about the guilt of a person shall be interpreted in favour of the accused.



          

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Article 58
Everyone shall be obliged to preserve nature and the environment, carefully treat the natural wealth.



          

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Article 59
1. Defence of the Fatherland shall be a duty and obligation of citizens of the Russian Federation.
2. A citizen shall carry out military service according to the federal law.
3. A citizen of the Russian Federation shall have the right to replace military service by alternative civilian service in case his convictions or religious belief contradict military service and also in other cases envisaged by the federal law.



          

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Article 65
1. The Russian Federation includes the following subjects of the Russian Federation: the Republic of Adygeya (Adygeya), the Republic of Altai, the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Republic of Buryatia, the Republic of Daghestan, the Republic of Ingushetia, the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, the Republic of Kalmykia, the Karachayevo-Circassian Republic, the Republic of Karelia, the Komi Republic, the Republic of Marii El, the Republic of Mordovia, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), the Republic of North Ossetia - Alania, the Republic of Tatarstan (Tatarstan), the Republic of Tuva, the Udmurtian Republic, the Republic of Khakassia, the Chechen Republic, the Chuvash Republic - Chuvashia; the Altai Territory, the Krasnodar Territory, the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Primorie Territory, the Stavropol Territory, the Khabarovsk Territory; the Amur Region, the Archangel Region, the Astrakhan Region, the Belgorod Region, the Bryansk Region, the Vladimir Region, the Volgograd Region, the Vologda Region, the Voronezh Region, the Ivanovo Region, the Irkutsk Region, the Kaliningrad Region, the Kaluga Region, the Kamchatka Region, the Kemerovo Region, the Kirov Region, the Kostroma Region, the Kurgan Region, the Kursk Region, the Leningrad Region, the Lipetsk Region, the Magadan Region, the Moscow Region, the Murmansk Region, the Nizhni Novgorod Region, the Novgorod Region, the Novosibirsk Region, the Omsk Region, the Orenburg Region, the Orel Region, the Penza Region, the Perm Region, the Pskov Region, the Rostov Region, the Ryazan Region, the Samara Region, the Saratov Region, the Sakhalin Region, the Sverdlovsk Region, the Smolensk Region, the Tambov Region, the Tver Region, the Tomsk Region, the Tula Region, the Tyumen Region, the Ulyanovsk Region, the Chelyabinsk Region, the Chita Region, the Yaroslavl Region; Moscow, St. Petersburg - cities of federal importance; the Jewish Autonomous Region; the Aginsk Buryat Autonomous Area, the Komi-Permyak Autonomous Area, the Koryak Autonomous Area, the Nenets Autonomous Area, the Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) Autonomous Area, the Ust-Ordyn Buryat Autonomous Area, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area, the Chukotka Autonomous Area, the Evenki Autonomous Area, the Yamalo-Nents Autonomous Area.
2. The admission to the Russian Federation and the creation in it of a new subject shall be carried out according to the rules established by the federal constitutional law.



          

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Article 68
1. The Russian language shall be a state language on the whole territory of the Russian Federation.
2. The Republics shall have the right to establish their own state languages. In the bodies of state authority and local self-government, state institutions of the Republics they shall be used together with the state language of the Russian Federation.
3. The Russian Federation shall guarantee to all of its peoples the right to preserve their native language and to create conditions for its study and development.



          

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Article 69
The Russian Federation shall guarantee the rights of the indigenous small peoples according to the universally recognized principles and norms of international law and international treaties and agreements of the Russian Federation.



          

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Article 71
The jurisdiction of the Russian Federation includes: adoption and amending of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws, control over their observance; federal structure and the territory of the Russian Federation; regulation and protection of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen; citizenship in the Russian Federation, regulation and protection of the rights of national minorities; establishment of the system of federal bodies of legislative, executive and judicial authority, the rules of their organization and activities, formation of federal bodies of state authority; federal state property and its management; establishment of the principles of federal policy and federal programmes in the sphere of state, economic, ecological, social, cultural and national development of the Russian Federation; establishment of legal groups for a single market; financial, currency, credit, and customs regulation, money issue, the principles of pricing policy; federal economic services, including federal banks; federal budget, federal taxes and dues, federal funds of regional development; federal power systems, nuclear power-engineering, fission materials, federal transport, railways, information and communication, outer space activities; foreign policy and international relations of the Russian Federation, international treaties and agreements of the Russian Federation, issues of war and peace; foreign economic relations of the Russian Federation; defence and security; military production; determination of rules of selling and purchasing weapons, ammunition, military equipment and other military property; production of poisonous substances, narcotic substances and rules of their use; determination of the status and protection of the state border, territorial sea, air space, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf of the expenditures; judicial system, procurator's office, criminal, criminal procedure and criminal-executive legislation, amnesty and pardoning , civil, civil procedure and arbitration procedure legislation, legal regulation of intellectual property; federal law of conflict of laws; meteorological service, standards, metric system, horometry accounting, geodesy and cartography, names of geographical units, official statistics and accounting; state awards and honourary titles of the Russian Federation; federal state service.



          

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Article 80
1. The President of the Russian Federation shall be the head of the State.
2. The President of the Russian Federation shall be guarantor of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen. According to the rules fixed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, he shall adopt measures to protect the sovereignty of the Russian Federation, its independence and state integrity, ensure coordinated functioning and interaction of all the bodies of state power.
3. According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal laws the President of the Russian Federation shall determine the guidelines of the internal and foreign policies of the State.
4. As the head of the State the President of the Russian Federation represent the Russian Federation within the country and in international relations.



          

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Article 81
1. The President of the Russian Federation shall be elected for four years by citizens of the Russian Federation on the basis of universal, equal, direct suffrage by secret ballot.
2. Any citizen of the Russian Federation not younger than 35 years of age and with a permanent residence record in the Russian Federation of not less than 10 years may be elected President of the Russian Federation.
3. One and the same person may not be elected President of the Russian Federation for more than two terms running.
4. The rules of electing the President of the Russian Federation shall determined by the federal law.



          

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Article 83
The President of the Russian Federation shall: appoint by agreement with the State Duma the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation; have the right to chair meetings of the Government of the Russian Federation; adopt decision on the registration of the Government of the Russian Federation; present to the State Duma a candidate for the appointment to the post of the Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, raise before the State Duma the issue of dismissing the Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation; on the proposal by the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation appoint and dismiss deputy chairmen of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministers; present to the Council of the Federation candidates for appointment as judges of the Constitution Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, the Higher Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation, as well as a candidate for the post of the Procurator-General of the Russian Federation; appoint judges of other federal courts; form and head the Security Council of the Russian Federation, the status of which is determined by the federal law; approve the military doctrine of the Russian Federation; form the Administration of the President of the Russian Federation; appoint and dismiss plenipotentiary representatives of the President of the Russian Federation; appoint and dismiss the supreme command of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation; after consultations with corresponding committees and commissions of the chambers of the Federal Assembly appoint and recall diplomatic representatives of the Russian Federation in foreign States and international organizations.



          

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Article 91
The President of the Russian Federation shall possess immunity.



          

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Article 101
1. The Council of the Federation shall elect from among its deputies the Chairman of the Council of the Federation and his deputies. The State Duma shall elect from among its deputies the Chairman of the State Duma and his deputies.
2. The Chairman of the Council of the Federation and his deputes, the Chairman of the State Duma and his deputies chair sittings and shall be in charge of the internal routine work of the respective chamber.
3. The Council of the Federation and the State Duma shall set up committees and commissions, hold parliamentary hearings on issues in their authority.
4. Each of the chambers shall adopt its procedural rules and solve issues of procedure for its work.
5. For controlling the implementation of the federal budget the Council of the Federation and the State Duma shall create the Accounting Chamber, the composition and the rules of work of which are fixed by the federal law.



          

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Article 110
1. The executive power in Russia shall be exercised by the Government of the Russian Federation.
2. The Government of the Russian Federation consists of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministries.



          

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Article 118
1. Justice in the Russian Federation shall be administered by courts alone.
2. The judicial power shall be exercised by means of constitutional, civil, administrative and criminal proceedings.
3. The judicial system of the Russian Federation shall be instituted by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal constitutional law. The creation of extraordinary courts shall not be allowed.



          

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Article 132
1. The local self-government bodies shall independently manage municipal property, form, adopt and implement the local budgets, introduce local taxes and dues, ensure the protection of public order, and also solve other issues of local importance.
2. The local self-government bodies may be vested by law with certain state powers and receive the necessary material and financial resources for their implementation. The implementation of the delegated powers shall be controlled by the State.



          

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 official textonception of projectparticipation in projectsponsorshipdiscussion of project
invitetodiscussionandparticiparion.invitetodiscussionandparticiparion.invitetodiscussionandparticiparion.
Art Hot LineArtinfoS.ART galleryAndrey Velikanov